Calculate matrix of pair-wise travel times between points.

dodgr_times(graph, from = NULL, to = NULL, shortest = FALSE, heap = "BHeap")



A dodgr network returned from the weight_streetnet function using a network obtained with the osmdata osmdata_sc function, possibly contracted with dodgr_contract_graph.


Vector or matrix of points from which route distances are to be calculated (see Notes)


Vector or matrix of points to which route distances are to be calculated (see Notes)


If TRUE, calculate times along the shortest rather than fastest paths.


Type of heap to use in priority queue. Options include Fibonacci Heap (default; FHeap), Binary Heap (BHeap), Trinomial Heap (TriHeap), Extended Trinomial Heap (TriHeapExt, and 2-3 Heap (Heap23`).


square matrix of distances between nodes


graph must minimally contain three columns of from, to, dist. If an additional column named weight or wt is present, shortest paths are calculated according to values specified in that column; otherwise according to dist values. Either way, final distances between from and to points are calculated by default according to values of dist. That is, paths between any pair of points will be calculated according to the minimal total sum of weight values (if present), while reported distances will be total sums of dist values.

For street networks produced with weight_streetnet, distances may also be calculated along the fastest routes with the shortest = FALSE option. Graphs must in this case have columns of time and time_weighted. Note that the fastest routes will only be approximate when derived from sf-format data generated with the osmdata function osmdata_sf(), and will be much more accurate when derived from sc-format data generated with osmdata_sc(). See weight_streetnet for details.

The from and to columns of graph may be either single columns of numeric or character values specifying the numbers or names of graph vertices, or combinations to two columns specifying geographical (longitude and latitude) coordinates. In the latter case, almost any sensible combination of names will be accepted (for example, fromx, fromy, from_x, from_y, or fr_lat, fr_lon.)

from and to values can be either two-column matrices of equivalent of longitude and latitude coordinates, or else single columns precisely matching node numbers or names given in graph$from or graph$to. If to is NULL, pairwise distances are calculated between all points specified in from. If both from and to are NULL, pairwise distances are calculated between all nodes in graph.

Calculations in parallel (parallel = TRUE) ought very generally be advantageous. For small graphs, calculating distances in parallel is likely to offer relatively little gain in speed, but increases from parallel computation will generally markedly increase with increasing graph sizes. By default, parallel computation uses the maximal number of available cores or threads. This number can be reduced by specifying a value via RcppParallel::setThreadOptions (numThreads = <desired_number>). Parallel calculations are, however, not able to be interrupted (for example, by Ctrl-C), and can only be stopped by killing the R process.


# A simple graph
graph <- data.frame (
    from = c ("A", "B", "B", "B", "C", "C", "D", "D"),
    to = c ("B", "A", "C", "D", "B", "D", "C", "A"),
    d = c (1, 2, 1, 3, 2, 1, 2, 1)
dodgr_dists (graph)
#>   A B C D
#> A 0 1 2 3
#> B 2 0 1 2
#> C 2 2 0 1
#> D 1 2 2 0

# A larger example from the included [hampi()] data.
graph <- weight_streetnet (hampi)
from <- sample (graph$from_id, size = 100)
to <- sample (graph$to_id, size = 50)
d <- dodgr_dists (graph, from = from, to = to)
# d is a 100-by-50 matrix of distances between `from` and `to`

if (FALSE) {
# a more complex street network example, thanks to @chrijo; see

xy <- rbind (
    c (7.005994, 51.45774), # limbeckerplatz 1 essen germany
    c (7.012874, 51.45041)
) # hauptbahnhof essen germany
xy <- data.frame (lon = xy [, 1], lat = xy [, 2])
essen <- dodgr_streetnet (pts = xy, expand = 0.2, quiet = FALSE)
graph <- weight_streetnet (essen, wt_profile = "foot")
d <- dodgr_dists (graph, from = xy, to = xy)
# First reason why this does not work is because the graph has multiple,
# disconnected components.
table (graph$component)
# reduce to largest connected component, which is always number 1
graph <- graph [which (graph$component == 1), ]
d <- dodgr_dists (graph, from = xy, to = xy)
# should work, but even then note that
table (essen$level)
# There are parts of the network on different building levels (because of
# shopping malls and the like). These may or may not be connected, so it may
# be necessary to filter out particular levels
index <- which (!(essen$level == "-1" | essen$level == "1")) # for example
library (sf) # needed for following sub-select operation
essen <- essen [index, ]
graph <- weight_streetnet (essen, wt_profile = "foot")
graph <- graph [which (graph$component == 1), ]
d <- dodgr_dists (graph, from = xy, to = xy)